Hunting in Nepal
In Nepal Dhorpatan Hunting Reserve offers the pleasure of hunting 4-Animal Species approved for HUNTING in Nepal to the hunters interested in it along with the wonderful trophies!
4-Animal Species approved for HUNTING in Nepal
- Himalayan Bluesheep (Pseudois nayaur) / Nawar (नाउर)
- Himalayan Tahr (Hemitragus jemlahicus) / Jharal (झारल)
- Muntjac (Small Asian Deer)
- Wild Boar (Sus scrofa)
Himalayan Blue Sheep (Pseudois nayaur) / Bharal / Nawar (नाउर)
(Dwarf Blue Sheep) Pseudois schaeferi
Blue Sheep Physical Description –
Himalayan Blue Sheep is a very nice and friendly wild animal. And is one of the symbols of the Himalayas. It is endemic to the Tibetan Plateau. It almost never changed in millions of years and looks very much like the prehystoric goat, the forefather of all goats and sheep, extinct 20 million years ago! The strange thing about the Bharal is that although it belongs to the sheep family it actually behaves like a goat. According to noted biologist George Schaller, Blue sheep are best described as “goats with sheep-like traits”. The Blue Sheep has a short, lustrous, brownish grey to grayish blue coat that provides excellent camouflage for the animal among the blue shale, rocks, and brown grasses of Tibet’s open hillsides. The tip of the Sheep’s muzzle, the belly, the inside and backs of the legs and the rump patch are white. There is also a white spot on the knees and above the hooves.
The front of the neck, the chest, and the fronts of the legs are dark grey in females and black in males. A grey or black stripe divides the darker upper parts of the Blue Sheep’s body from the lighter under parts. The male’s neck is swollen during the rut.
Both male and female Blue sheep have ridged horns. The horns of males are relatively short but massive, curving up and out from the top of the animal’s head, then backwards, and curling at the tip. The horns of males measure about 24 centimeters (9.4 inches) in circumference, in males of at least six years of age, and may grow to be as long as 84 cm (33 inches).
The horn tips of males are sometimes splintered, but are rarely broken. The horns of females are shorter, measuring between 10 to 20 centimeters (3.9 to 7.9 inches) long, and do not curve as much as the horns of males.
The Blue Sheep has short, pointed ears and large eyes. The Sheep’s stocky body and stout legs make it an excellent climber. Adult males stand about 80 to 91 centimeters (2.6 to 3 feet) at the shoulder and typically weigh from 60 to 75 kilograms (132 to 165 pounds). Females weigh from 35 to 45 kilograms (77 to 99 pounds).
The Dwarf Blue Sheep is smaller than the common Blue Sheep. Dwarf Blue sheep males weigh about 28 to 39 kilograms (62 to 86 pounds) and females weigh about 25 to 35 kilograms (55 to 77 pounds). The Dwarf Blue Sheep also has thinner horns than the common Blue Sheep, with less of an inward curve and tips that turn up more.
Blue Sheep Habitat –
In and around the deep gorges, up to 5300m we can see some small herds of (Himalayan) Blue Sheep. The Blue Sheep inhabits treeless slopes and alpine meadows and shrub zones above the timberline. The Sheep prefers relatively gentle hillsides covered with grasses and sedges, but usually remains within 200 meters (650 feet) of cliffs up which it can climb to escape from predators. It lives on grasses, lichens and hardy herbaceous plants at an altitude between 3000 and 5500 meters. Its main enemies are leopards and MEN (We hunt them!); but are not in a danger of extinction!
They are excellent climber and seems to have no fear whatsoever when it comes to run up or down steep rock walls! Highly tolerant of environmental extremes, the Blue Sheep may be found in regions ranging from hot and dry to cold, windy, and snowy, and elevations from below 1,200 meters (3,900 feet) to as high as 5,300 meters (17,400 feet). The Sheep is distributed across the Tibetan Plateau and on associated and neighboring mountain ranges. The Blue Sheep’s habitat range includes Tibet, regions of Pakistan, India, Nepal, and Bhutan that border Tibet, and portions of China’s Xinjiang, Gansu, Sichuan, Yunnan, and Ningxia provinces.
The Dwarf Blue Sheep inhabits the steep, arid, lower slopes of the Yangtze River valley, at elevations from 2,600 to 3,200 meters (8,500 to 10,500 feet). The Dwarf Blue Sheep occurs in and to the north, south, and west of Bathang (Batang) county in Kham (Sichuan province). The common Blue Sheep also lives in this region, but remains in alpine meadows at higher altitudes than the Dwarf Blue Sheep; approximately 1,000 meters (3,300 feet) of forest zone separate the two species.
Blue Sheep Eating Habits –
The Blue Sheep eats grasses, herbs, lichens, and mosses.
Blue Sheep Behavior and Reproduction –
The Blue Sheep is most active in the early morning, in the late afternoon, and briefly around midday. The Sheep typically lives in herds. Herds may consist of all males, all females, females with young and yearlings, or females and males both adult and young. Herds range in size from as few as two Blue sheep (most often a female and her offspring) to as many as 400. Most herds, however, contain about 30 animals. During the summer, males separate from females in some areas of the Sheep’s habitat range.
The Blue Sheep reaches sexual maturity between one and two years of age, but most males are not able to secure a mate until they are seven years old. The mating and birth seasons of the Sheep vary across the animal’s habitat range. In general, the Blue Sheep mates during the winter and gives birth in the summer. Reproductive success depends upon weather conditions and level of nutrition. The Blue Sheep’s gestation period is 160 days. Each pregnant female gives birth to one offspring. Offspring are weaned at about six months of age.
The Blue Sheep’s life span is 11 to 15 years. The Sheep’s natural predators include snow leopards, wolves, and common leopards. The Blue Sheep is the Snow Leopard’s principal prey on the Tibetan Plateau. Blue sheep freeze when a potential predator is in their vicinity. Their excellent camouflage often results in them being overlooked as part of the landscape. Blue sheep flee if a predator does manage to spot them.
Blue Sheep Present Status –
The Blue Sheep is categorized as Least Concern in the 2003 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. The Blue Sheep is under second class protection in China and is included in Schedule III of the Indian Wild Life (Protection) Act of 1972. The total population size of the Blue Sheep is estimated at between 47,000 and 414,000. The Dwarf Blue Sheep is categorized as Endangered in the 2003 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species and is protected under the laws of Sichuan province. In 1997, there were estimated to be 200 Dwarf Blue sheep remaining.
Blue Sheep: Threats to Survival –
The Blue Sheep and Dwarf Blue Sheep have been heavily hunted, mostly on a subsistence basis.
Himalayan Tahr (Hemitragus jemlahicus) / Jharal (झारल)
Himalayan Tahr Physical Description –
The Himalayan Tahr is a large ungulate related to the wild goat. Its native habitat is in the rugged wooded hills and mountain slopes of the Himalaya in Nepal from Central Asia in northern Kashmir to China. The Himalayan Tahr has a thick, shaggy, dual-layered coat. In the winter, this coat keeps the Tahr warm. Males additionally grow a long mane around their neck and shoulders that extends down to their forelegs in the winter.
Adult male Tahrs are reddish-brown to black with lighter under-parts, a dark face, a dark muzzle, and a reddish rump patch. Males darken in color and develop a light band along their flanks as well as a dark stripe down their backs as they age. Females are grey to brown with a dark muzzle, dark legs, and light under-parts.
Young Tahrs have a solid brown coat, except for the fronts of their legs, which are black. As temperatures rise in the spring, the Himalayan Tahr’s coat thins and lightens in color.
The Himalayan Tahr’s head is small in proportion to its body size, but the Tahr’s eyes are large. The ears of the Himalayan Tahr are small and pointed. Both male and female Tahrs have triangular horns that curve abruptly backwards and then inwards.
The Himalayan Tahr’s horns reach a maximum length of 45 centimeters (18 inches). The horns of female Tahrs are much smaller than the horns of the males.
The curvature of the Himalayan Tahr’s horns protects male Tahrs from being seriously injured in the head-butting battles that occur during the Tahr’s mating season.
The Himalayan Tahr has no facial glands, but the Tahr’s tail contains a large number of glands that secrete a very strong-smelling substance.
The Himalayan Tahr has short legs in comparison to the size of its body. The Tahr’s hooves and dewclaws enable the animal to move adeptly through rocky terrain. The hooves are flexible and rubbery in the center, which provides grip on smooth surfaces, and rimmed with hard, sharp keratin on the outside, which allows the Tahr to secure footholds when climbing.
The Himalayan Tahr has a body length of 90 to 140 centimeters (three to 4.7 feet) and a tail length of nine to 12 centimeters (3.6 to 4.8 inches). The Tahr stands 65 to 100 centimeters (2.1 to 3.3 feet) tall at the shoulder. The average weight of male Tahrs is 73 kilograms (161 pounds) and the average weight of female Tahrs is 36 kilograms (79 pounds).
Found in regions above 2500m to 5500 m, Himalayan Tahrs are seen in slopes where vegetation is exposed for grazing. Having a deep copper-brown coat, males have a corse, tangled mane over the neck, chest, and shoulders. The male Himalayan Tahr has a horn that is pointed backward and can reach up to 46 cm but in female, the horns are shorter and are not that pointed backward as the males do. These mountain goats fall under the ungulate group of mammals so they have even number of toes. Normally, Tahrs are seen in the slopes that are smooth or rough and the ease that is seen while walking is due to the hooves having a rubber-like core which allows them to grip rocks.
Himalayan Tahr Habitat –
The Himalayan Tahr inhabits forested hills and mountains and alpine meadows, at elevations from 2,500 to 5,000 meters (8,200 to 16,400 feet). In the winter, the Tahr descends to lower elevations, where more cover is available, and in the summer, it ascends to alpine meadows at high elevations. The Himalayan Tahr is confined to the southern range of the Himalayan Mountains and occurs in northern India, Nepal, Bhutan, and southern Tibet.
Protected areas in which the Himalayan Tahr can be found include the Kishtwar National Park, the Great Himalayan National Park, and the 33,819 square-kilometer Qomalanga Nature Preserve that was established in 1989 in the region surrounding Mt. Everest.
Himalayan Tahr Eating Habits –
The Himalayan Tahr is a ruminant. The Tahr eats herbs, grasses, and the leaves of shrubs and trees. The Tahr can rear up on its hind legs to reach tall branches and hold branches down with its forelegs while it eats. The Himalayan Tahr eats less in the winter due to poor food quality and high metabolic costs.
Himalayan Tahr Behavior and Reproduction –
The Himalayan Tahr is most active during the early morning and the late afternoon. In the morning the Tahr moves upslope, where it spends at least half of the hours of daylight ruminating and resting. In the evening, the Himalayan Tahr returns to lower areas. Older Tahrs tend to be solitary, but most Tahrs live in herds of generally between two and 23 animals, or sometimes as many as 80. Except during the breeding season, males and females live separately, the males in all-male herds and the females in herds composed of females and Tahrs under two years of age. Male herds are larger than female herds.
The Himalayan Tahr reaches sexually maturity at about two years of age. The Tahr’s breeding season lasts from October to January. During the breeding season, mature males compete with each other for mating privileges. Males younger than four years of age are rarely successful in securing a partner to mate with. The Himalayan Tahr’s gestation period is seven months.
Pregnant females leave the herds before giving birth and do not return until a few days after young have been born. Females give birth to one, or, occasionally, to two kids. Kids begin nursing within a few minutes and are able to walk after about three hours. Kids are weaned at six months of age but remain with their mothers for up to two years.
In the wild, the Himalayan Tahr’s life span is approximately 10 to 14 years, whereas Tahrs in captivity may live for up to 22 years. The Tahr is a shy animal, fleeing from potential sources of danger. The Himalayan Tahr’s only known natural predators are snow leopards. Tahrs may also be killed in rock slides and avalanches.
Himalayan Tahr Present Status –
The Himalayan Tahr is categorized as Vulnerable in the 2003 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. The Himalayan Tahr is included in Schedule III of the Indian Wild Life (Protection) Act of 1972.
Himalayan Tahr: Threats to Survival –
The main threat to the Himalayan Tahr’s survival is habitat loss, due to logging and the construction of human settlements. Other threats to the Tahr include increasing competition for forage with domesticated animals and hunting. The Himalayan Tahr is hunted for sport and food. Military conflicts in northern India have led to an increase in firearms along the national borders in the Himalayan region, which has in turn resulted in more Tahr deaths.
Muntjac (Small Asian Deer) / Reeves's Muntjac
Muntjac Physical Description –
Reeves's muntjacs are native to East Asia. They are also known as barking deer due to their distinctive barking sound. Reeves's muntjacs are reddish-brown in appearance with striped markings on their face. Their belly is creamy-white, with lighter fur extending to the neck, chin, and the underside of the tail. The males have short antlers and long upper canines (tusks). Females have bony lumps on their foreheads and localized black spots. Both males and females Reeves's muntjacs also have preorbital glands. These glands produce a creamy liquid which is used for chemical communication.
Muntjac Habitat –
Reeves's muntjacs are found in southeastern China (from Gansu to Yunnan), Taiwan and Nepal. In China, these deer inhabit rocky places and open woodlands of pine and oak. They also occur in low mountains and hilly areas, at forest edges and in shrubby habitats. In Taiwan, Reeves's muntjacs are found mostly in forested areas. There they live in habitats that range from subtropical lowlands to coniferous forests or alpine grassland at the highest altitudes. In Nepal, it is found in ample in the dense jungles! Also, Dhorpatan Hunting Reserve offers the pleasure of hunting Muntjac to the hunters interested in it!
Muntjac Eating Habits –
Reeves's muntjacs are omnivorous creatures. They feed on herbs, blossoms, succulent shoots, fungi, berries, grasses, and nuts. They may also eat tree bark. Eggs and carrion are eaten opportunistically. Reeves's muntjacs are generally solitary and crepuscular animals. They are territorial and both males and females defend small territories. They mark their territories with preorbital gland secretions that are thought to be pheromonal in nature. Territories of females usually overlap, but male territories overlap only with those of females, not of other males. When defending their territory or fighting for females, males first use their antlers to push enemies off balance so they can wound them with their upper canine teeth. Reeves's muntjacs have a habit of creating trails through their territory. They use these trails for ease of movement. They also like to trample down and clear areas for sleep. In order to communicate with each other, Reeves's muntjacs use vocalizations and chemical signals. They bark when feeling threatened or in the presence of a dominant conspecific. Chemical communication consists of scent marks that muntjacs leave on vegetation when marking the territory.
Muntjac Behavior and Reproduction –
Reeves's muntjacs have a polygynous mating system. This means that males mate with more than one female during each breeding season. These muntjacs breed throughout the year. The gestation period lasts from 209 to 220 days and females give birth to 1 or 2 fawns. Young are born precocial and develop very quickly. They are weaned early and begin to eat solid foods. Females generally nurse their fawns around 17 weeks. When fawns are 6 months old, they leave the mother's territory. Females become reproductively mature within the first year of life.
Muntjac Present Status –
The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List and other sources don’t provide the number of the Reeves's muntjac total population size. Currently, this species is classified as Least Concern (LC) on the IUCN Red List but its numbers today are decreasing.
Muntjac: Threats to Survival –
Reeves's muntjacs are threatened mainly by the habitat destruction and hunting. They are hunted for food and for their soft skins which were used in the fur market, beauty-care products, musical instruments, lenses, and antique items packaging. Their forest habitat is being lost due to logging, agriculture, and urbanization.
Wild Boar (Sus scrofa)
Wild Boar Physical Description –
The Wild Boar is commonly referred to as “Wild Pig” or “Wild Swine” “Wild Hog”. It is the Species of the Pig and belongs to the Family Suidae being the Scentific Name: Sus scrofa
The Wild Boar is a medium-sized mammal with a large head and front end, which leads into a smaller hind. They have a thick and course double coat of fur, which consists of a harder, bristly top layer, with a softer undercoat beneath it. The hair that runs along the ridge of the Wild Boar's back is also longer than the rest. The Wild Boar varies from brown, to black, to red or dark grey in color which normally happens depending on the individual's location. For example Wild Boar individuals found in Western Europe tend to be brown, where those inhabiting the forests of Eastern Europe can be completely black in color. They have; Shoulder height of 30-43 inches (55-110 cm); weighs 150-400 pounds (68-180 kilograms) ranging little more! The female is similar to the male, though smaller and with much smaller tusks. The Wild Boar has incredibly poor eyesight due to its very small-sized eyes, but they also have a long, straight snout which enables them to have an incredibly acute sense of smell.
In Nepal Dhorpatan Hunting Reserve offers the pleasure of hunting Wild Boars to the hunters interested in it along with the wonderful trophies!
Wild Boar Habitat –
The Wild Boar is the most widely distributed land mammal on Earth as its native range extends from Western Europe, right across to Japan to the east, and down to the rainforests of Indonesia in the south. The four separate sub-species are determined by their location with one inhabiting Europe, north-western Africa and western Asia; another is found across northern Asia and in Japan; the third inhabits the tropical jungles of India, South East Asia, in the dense jungle of Nepal and the Far East, with the last being found only in Indonesia. Wild Boars are found in a variety of different habitats including tropical jungles and grasslands, but they tend to favor deciduous broad-leafed forests where the vegetation is incredibly dense.
Wild Boar Eating Habits –
The Wild Boar is an omnivorous animal that primarily feeds on plants. Plant matter comprises around 90% of the Wild Boar's diet as they feed on young leaves, berries, grasses and fruits, and unearth roots and bulbs from the ground with their hard snouts. Living in highly seasonal regions, Wild Boars have had to adapt to the changing fruits and flowers, and are known to favor the protein-rich nuts (such as acorns) that become available in the autumn and prepare them for the winter ahead. They will however, eat almost anything that will fit into their mouths, and supplement their diet by eating eggs, Mice, Lizards, Worms and even Snakes. Wild Boar will also happily finish off the abandoned kill of another animal.
Wild Boar Behavior and Reproduction –
Once mated the female Wild Boar gives birth to 4-6 piglets in a nest found in a dense thicket, which is made up of leaves, grasses and moss. The mother remains with her piglets solidly for the first couple of weeks to protect them from hungry predators. Wild Boar piglets are incredibly distinctive animals as they have light brown fur, with cream and brown stripes that run the length of their backs. Although these stripes begin to disappear when the piglets are between 3 and 4 months old, they prove to camouflage the Wild Boar young into the debris on the forest floor, very effectively. Once they are two months old, the piglets begin to venture out of the nest on short foraging trips, before they become independent at around 7 months old and are almost red in color. The fur of the Wild Boar does not reach adult coloration until the animal is about a year old.
Wild Boar Present Status –
Today, the Wild Boar has been listed by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) as being a species that is of Least Concern of becoming extinct in its natural environment in the near future. Population numbers are suffering on the whole however, mainly due to hunting and loss of habitat. In a number of areas though, there have actually been rapid inclines in Wild Boar populations, possibly due to the loss of many of their main predators such as Wolves and Tigers.
Wild Boar: Threats to Survival –
Due to their incredibly large distribution, Wild Boars are prey to numerous predators of all shapes and sizes, throughout their natural habitats. Large felines such as Leopards, Lynx's and Tigers are amongst the most common predators of the Wild Boar, along with other large carnivores like Wolves and Bears, and also Humans. Although their numbers in the wild have dropped rapidly in much of their natural range, in other areas including mainland Europe, Poland and Pakistan, there have actually been significant population rises and the exact reasons are not really known. It is thought to be due to a variety of things including the decline of their main predators, their increased protection, and the more regulated hunting of them in their native regions.
Wild Boar Interesting Facts and Features –
The snout of the Wild Boar is probably one of this animal's most characteristic features, and like other Wild Pigs, it sets these mammals apart from the others. The snout of the Wild Boar has a cartilaginous disk at the end, which is supported by a small bone called the prenasal that allows the Wild Boar's snout to be used as a bulldozer when it is foraging for food. All Wild Boars have tusks on their bottom lips, although in males, there are larger than those of in female, and actually curve upwards out of their mouths. More interestingly however, males also have a hollow tusk on their top lip too, which actually acts life a knife-sharpener, constantly sharpening the male's bottom tusks, both of which can grow up to 06 cm long. More interesting facts remains: a group of Wild Boars is calling a “Sounder”; their Squeal can be as loud as 110 to 115 decibels, compared to the 100 decibels of the noise from a motorcycle! And, some sub-species have a thick, erect mane that runs down their backs to their tails, giving them the name “razorback.”
Wild Boar Relationship with Humans –
Wild Boars are now farmed in many places for their meat but they have also been HUNTED for their sharp tusks as prize trophies for centuries, meaning that populations even became extinct in some parts of the world i.e. Britain. Today however, Humans have introduced the Wild Boar to numerous different countries around the world, purely so that they can be hunted and eaten. This includes Hawaii, The Galapagos Islands, Fiji, New Zealand, Australia, South Africa, Sweden, Norway and Nepal.
They can be a fearsome animal to encounter, as they have a powerful body-shape, they snort very loudly, and they often have sharp tusks. However, they rarely attack humans unless cornered, or unless it is a female protecting her piglets. Wild boars are farmed in many countries by people for so long, that the Wild Boar is actually the ancestor of common domestic Pigs. Although a number of the world's Wild Boar populations are actually increasing, the species as a whole has been threatened by habitat loss to Humans, mainly through deforestation and continuously growing settlements.